Edit on GitHub

pdoc.doc

This module defines pdoc's documentation objects. A documentation object corresponds to something in your Python code that has a docstring or type annotation. Typically, this only includes modules, classes, functions and methods. However, pdoc adds support for extracting documentation from the abstract syntax tree, which means that variables (module, class or instance) are supported too.

There are four main types of documentation objects:

All documentation types types make heavy use of @functools.cached_property decorators. This means they have a large set of attributes that are lazily computed on first access. By convention, all attributes are read-only, although this this not enforced at runtime.

View Source
"""
This module defines pdoc's documentation objects. A documentation object corresponds to *something*
in your Python code that has a docstring or type annotation. Typically, this only includes
modules, classes, functions and methods. However, `pdoc` adds support for extracting documentation
from the abstract syntax tree, which means that variables (module, class or instance) are supported too.

There are four main types of documentation objects:

- `Module`
- `Class`
- `Function`
- `Variable`

All documentation types types make heavy use of `@functools.cached_property` decorators.
This means they have a large set of attributes that are lazily computed on first access.
By convention, all attributes are read-only, although this this not enforced at runtime.
"""
from __future__ import annotations

import enum
import inspect
import pkgutil
import re
import sys
import textwrap
import traceback
import types
import warnings
from abc import ABCMeta, abstractmethod
from functools import wraps
from typing import Any, ClassVar, Generic, Optional, TypeVar, Union

from pdoc import doc_ast, extract
from pdoc.doc_types import (
    NonUserDefinedCallables,
    empty,
    formatannotation,
    resolve_annotations,
    safe_eval_type,
)
from ._compat import _tuplegetter, cache, cached_property, get_origin


def _include_fullname_in_traceback(f):
    """
    Doc.__repr__ should not raise, but it may raise if we screwed up.
    Debugging this is a bit tricky, because, well, we can't repr() in the traceback either then.
    This decorator adds location information to the traceback, which helps tracking down bugs.
    """

    @wraps(f)
    def wrapper(self):
        try:
            return f(self)
        except Exception as e:
            raise RuntimeError(f"Error in {self.fullname}'s repr!") from e

    return wrapper


T = TypeVar("T")


class Doc(Generic[T]):
    """
    A base class for all documentation objects.
    """

    modulename: str
    """
    The module that this object is in, for example `pdoc.doc`.
    """

    qualname: str
    """
    The qualified identifier name for this object. For example, if we have the following code:
    
    ```python
    class Foo:
        def bar(self):
            pass
    ```
    
    The qualname of `Foo`'s `bar` method is `Foo.bar`. The qualname of the `Foo` class is just `Foo`.
    
    See <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3155/> for details.
    """

    obj: T
    """
    The underlying Python object.
    """

    taken_from: tuple[str, str]
    """
    `(modulename, qualname)` of this doc object's original location.
    In the context of a module, this points to the location it was imported from,
    in the context classes, this points to the class an attribute is inherited from.
    """

    def __init__(
        self, modulename: str, qualname: str, obj: T, taken_from: tuple[str, str]
    ):
        """
        Initializes a documentation object, where
        `modulename` is the name this module is defined in,
        `qualname` contains a dotted path leading to the object from the module top-level, and
        `obj` is the object to document.
        """
        self.modulename = modulename
        self.qualname = qualname
        self.obj = obj
        self.taken_from = taken_from

    @cached_property
    def fullname(self) -> str:
        """The full qualified name of this doc object, for example `pdoc.doc.Doc`."""
        # qualname is empty for modules
        return f"{self.modulename}.{self.qualname}".rstrip(".")

    @cached_property
    def name(self) -> str:
        """The name of this object. For top-level functions and classes, this is equal to the qualname attribute."""
        return self.fullname.split(".")[-1]

    @cached_property
    def docstring(self) -> str:
        """
        The docstring for this object. It has already been cleaned by `inspect.cleandoc`.

        If no docstring can be found, an empty string is returned.
        """
        doc = inspect.getdoc(self.obj) or ""
        return doc.strip()

    @cached_property
    def source(self) -> str:
        """
        The source code of the Python object as a `str`.

        If the source cannot be obtained (for example, because we are dealing with a native C object),
        an empty string is returned.
        """
        return doc_ast.get_source(self.obj)

    @cached_property
    def is_inherited(self) -> bool:
        """
        If True, the doc object is inherited from another location.
        This most commonly refers to methods inherited by a subclass,
        but can also apply to variables that are assigned a class defined
        in a different module.
        """
        return (self.modulename, self.qualname) != self.taken_from

    @classmethod
    @property
    def type(cls) -> str:
        """
        The type of the doc object, either `"module"`, `"class"`, or `"function"`.
        """
        return cls.__name__.lower()

    if sys.version_info < (3, 9):  # pragma: no cover
        # no @classmethod @property in 3.8
        @property
        def type(self) -> str:  # noqa
            return self.__class__.__name__.lower()

    def __lt__(self, other):
        assert isinstance(other, Doc)
        return self.fullname.replace("__init__", "").__lt__(
            other.fullname.replace("__init__", "")
        )


class Namespace(Doc[T], metaclass=ABCMeta):
    """
    A documentation object that can have children. In other words, either a module or a class.
    """

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        """
        A mapping from *all* public and private member names to their Python objects.
        """

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        """A mapping from some member variable names to their docstrings."""

    @abstractmethod
    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        """The location this member was taken from. If unknown, (modulename, qualname) is returned."""

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        """A mapping from some member variable names to their type annotations."""

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        """A list of all own (i.e. non-inherited) members"""

    @cached_property
    def members(self) -> dict[str, Doc]:
        """A mapping from all members to their documentation objects."""
        members: dict[str, Doc] = {}
        for name, obj in self._member_objects.items():
            qualname = f"{self.qualname}.{name}".lstrip(".")
            taken_from = self._taken_from(name, obj)
            doc: Doc[Any]

            is_classmethod = isinstance(obj, classmethod)
            is_property = (
                isinstance(obj, (property, cached_property))
                or
                # Python 3.9: @classmethod @property is now allowed.
                is_classmethod
                and isinstance(obj.__func__, (property, cached_property))
            )
            if is_property:
                func = obj
                if is_classmethod:
                    func = obj.__func__
                if isinstance(func, property):
                    func = func.fget
                else:
                    assert isinstance(func, cached_property)
                    func = func.func

                doc_f = Function(self.modulename, qualname, func, taken_from)
                doc = Variable(
                    self.modulename,
                    qualname,
                    docstring=doc_f.docstring,
                    annotation=doc_f.signature.return_annotation,
                    default_value=empty,
                    taken_from=taken_from,
                )
            elif inspect.isroutine(obj):
                doc = Function(self.modulename, qualname, obj, taken_from)
            elif inspect.isclass(obj) and obj is not empty:
                doc = Class(self.modulename, qualname, obj, taken_from)
            elif inspect.ismodule(obj):
                doc = Module(obj)
                doc.modulename = self.modulename
                doc.qualname = qualname
            else:
                docstring = self._var_docstrings.get(name, "")
                if not docstring and inspect.isdatadescriptor(obj):
                    docstring = getattr(obj, "__doc__", None) or ""
                doc = Variable(
                    self.modulename,
                    qualname,
                    docstring=docstring,
                    annotation=self._var_annotations.get(name, empty),
                    default_value=obj,
                    taken_from=taken_from,
                )
            members[doc.name] = doc
        return members

    @cached_property
    def _members_by_origin(self) -> dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]]:
        """A mapping from (modulename, qualname) locations to the attributes taken from that path"""
        locations: dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]] = {}
        for member in self.members.values():
            mod, qualname = member.taken_from
            parent_qualname = ".".join(qualname.rsplit(".", maxsplit=1)[:-1])
            locations.setdefault((mod, parent_qualname), [])
            locations[(mod, parent_qualname)].append(member)
        return locations

    @cached_property
    def inherited_members(self) -> dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]]:
        """A mapping from (modulename, qualname) locations to the attributes inherited from that path"""
        return {
            k: v
            for k, v in self._members_by_origin.items()
            if k not in (self.taken_from, (self.modulename, self.qualname))
        }

    @cached_property
    def flattened_own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        """
        A list of all documented members and their child classes, recursively.
        """
        flattened = []
        for x in self.own_members:
            flattened.append(x)
            if isinstance(x, Class):
                flattened.extend(
                    [cls for cls in x.flattened_own_members if isinstance(cls, Class)]
                )
        return flattened

    @cache
    def get(self, identifier: str) -> Optional[Doc]:
        """Returns the documentation object for a particular identifier, or `None` if the identifier cannot be found."""
        head, _, tail = identifier.partition(".")
        if tail:
            h = self.members.get(head, None)
            if isinstance(h, Class):
                return h.get(tail)
            return None
        else:
            return self.members.get(identifier, None)


class Module(Namespace[types.ModuleType]):
    """
    Representation of a module's documentation.
    """

    def __init__(
        self,
        module: types.ModuleType,
    ):
        """
        Creates a documentation object given the actual
        Python module object.
        """
        super().__init__(module.__name__, "", module, (module.__name__, ""))

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f"<module {self.fullname}{_docstr(self)}{_children(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def is_package(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if the module is a package, `False` otherwise.

        Packages are special kind of module that may have submodules.
        Typically, this means that this file is in a directory named like the
        module with the name `__init__.py`.
        """
        return _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__path__", None) is not None

    @cached_property
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        return doc_ast.walk_tree(self.obj).docstrings

    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        if obj is empty:
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")
        if isinstance(obj, types.ModuleType):
            return obj.__name__, ""

        mod = _safe_getattr(obj, "__module__", None)
        qual = _safe_getattr(obj, "__qualname__", None)
        if mod and qual and "<locals>" not in qual:
            return mod, qual
        elif mod and mod != self.modulename:
            # This might be wrong, but it's the best guess we have.
            return mod, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")
        else:
            # We could conceivably also walk the AST here for imports,
            # which would turn up the origin of variables.
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")

    @cached_property
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        annotations = doc_ast.walk_tree(self.obj).annotations.copy()
        for k, v in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__annotations__", {}).items():
            annotations[k] = v

        return resolve_annotations(annotations, self.obj, self.fullname)

    @cached_property
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        return list(self.members.values())

    @cached_property
    def submodules(self) -> list["Module"]:
        """A list of all (direct) submodules."""
        if not self.is_package:
            return []

        if _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__all__", False):
            # If __all__ is set, only show submodules specified there.
            return [
                mod
                for mod in self.members.values()
                if isinstance(mod, Module)
                and mod.modulename.startswith(self.modulename)
            ]

        else:
            submodules = []
            for mod in pkgutil.iter_modules(self.obj.__path__, f"{self.fullname}."):  # type: ignore
                if mod.name.split(".")[-1].startswith("_"):
                    continue
                try:
                    module = extract.load_module(mod.name)
                except RuntimeError:
                    warnings.warn(
                        f"Couldn't import {mod.name}:\n{traceback.format_exc()}",
                        RuntimeWarning,
                    )
                    continue
                submodules.append(Module(module))
            return submodules

    @cached_property
    def _documented_members(self) -> set[str]:
        return self._var_docstrings.keys() | self._var_annotations.keys()

    @cached_property
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        members = {}

        all = _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__all__", False)
        if all:
            for name in all:
                if name in self.obj.__dict__:
                    val = self.obj.__dict__[name]
                elif name in self._var_annotations:
                    val = empty
                else:
                    # this may be an unimported submodule, try importing.
                    # (https://docs.python.org/3/tutorial/modules.html#importing-from-a-package)
                    try:
                        val = extract.load_module(f"{self.modulename}.{name}")
                    except RuntimeError as e:
                        warnings.warn(
                            f"Found {name!r} in {self.modulename}.__all__, but it does not resolve: {e}",
                            RuntimeWarning,
                        )
                        val = empty
                members[name] = val

        else:
            for name, obj in self.obj.__dict__.items():
                # We already exclude everything here that is imported, only a TypeVar,
                # or a variable without annotation and docstring.
                # If one needs to document one of these things, __all__ is the correct way.
                if isinstance(obj, TypeVar):
                    continue
                obj_module = inspect.getmodule(obj)
                declared_in_this_module = self.obj.__name__ == _safe_getattr(
                    obj_module, "__name__", None
                )
                if declared_in_this_module or name in self._documented_members:
                    members[name] = obj
            for name in self._var_annotations:
                members.setdefault(name, empty)

            members, notfound = doc_ast.sort_by_source(self.obj, {}, members)
            members.update(notfound)

        return members

    @cached_property
    def variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level variables.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Variable)]

    @cached_property
    def classes(self) -> list["Class"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level classes.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Class)]

    @cached_property
    def functions(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level functions.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Function)]


class Class(Namespace[type]):
    """
    Representation of a class's documentation.
    """

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f"<{_decorators(self)}class {self.modulename}.{self.qualname}{_docstr(self)}{_children(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        docstrings: dict[str, str] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            for name, docstr in doc_ast.walk_tree(cls).docstrings.items():
                docstrings.setdefault(name, docstr)
        return docstrings

    @cached_property
    def _declarations(self) -> dict[str, tuple[str, str]]:
        decls: dict[str, tuple[str, str]] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            treeinfo = doc_ast.walk_tree(cls)
            for name in treeinfo.docstrings.keys() | treeinfo.annotations.keys():
                decls.setdefault(name, (cls.__module__, f"{cls.__qualname__}.{name}"))
            for name in cls.__dict__:
                decls.setdefault(name, (cls.__module__, f"{cls.__qualname__}.{name}"))
        if decls.get("__init__", None) == ("builtins", "object.__init__"):
            decls["__init__"] = (
                self.obj.__module__,
                f"{self.obj.__qualname__}.__init__",
            )
        return decls

    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        try:
            return self._declarations[member_name]
        except KeyError:  # pragma: no cover
            warnings.warn(
                f"Cannot determine where {self.fullname}.{member_name} is taken from, assuming current file."
            )
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}"

    @cached_property
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, type]:
        annotations: dict[str, type] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            cls_annotations = doc_ast.walk_tree(cls).annotations.copy()
            dynamic_annotations = _safe_getattr(cls, "__annotations__", None)
            if isinstance(dynamic_annotations, dict):
                for k, v in dynamic_annotations.items():
                    cls_annotations[k] = v
            cls_fullname = (
                _safe_getattr(cls, "__module__", "") + "." + cls.__qualname__
            ).lstrip(".")
            cls_annotations = resolve_annotations(
                cls_annotations, inspect.getmodule(cls), cls_fullname
            )

            for k, v in cls_annotations.items():
                annotations.setdefault(k, v)
        return annotations

    @cached_property
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        members = self._members_by_origin.get((self.modulename, self.qualname), [])
        if self.taken_from != (self.modulename, self.qualname):
            # .taken_from may be != (self.modulename, self.qualname), for example when
            # a module re-exports a class from a private submodule.
            members += self._members_by_origin.get(self.taken_from, [])
        return members

    @cached_property
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        unsorted: dict[str, Any] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            for name, obj in cls.__dict__.items():
                unsorted.setdefault(name, obj)
        for name in self._var_annotations:
            unsorted.setdefault(name, empty)
        for name in self._var_docstrings:
            unsorted.setdefault(name, empty)

        # Do a dance similar to
        # https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/9feae41c4f04ca27fd2c865807a5caeb50bf4fc4/Lib/inspect.py#L2359-L2376
        call = _safe_getattr(type(self.obj), "__call__", object.__call__)
        if not isinstance(call, NonUserDefinedCallables):
            # Does the metaclass define a custom __call__ method?
            unsorted["__init__"] = call
            if issubclass(self.obj, enum.Enum):
                # Special case: do not show a constructor for enums. They are typically not constructed by users.
                # The alternative would be showing __new__, as __call__ is too verbose.
                del unsorted["__init__"]
        else:
            # Does our class define a custom __new__ method?
            new = _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__new__", object.__new__)
            if not isinstance(new, NonUserDefinedCallables):
                # we only want to pick up __new__ if it has a non-default docstring.
                prefer_init_over_new = new.__doc__ in (None, object.__new__.__doc__)
                if not prefer_init_over_new:
                    unsorted["__init__"] = new

        sorted: dict[str, Any] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            sorted, unsorted = doc_ast.sort_by_source(cls, sorted, unsorted)
        sorted.update(unsorted)
        return sorted

    @cached_property
    def bases(self) -> list[tuple[str, str, str]]:
        """
        A list of all base classes, i.e. all immediate parent classes.

        Each parent class is represented as a `(modulename, qualname, display_text)` tuple.
        """
        bases = []
        # noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
        for x in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__orig_bases__", self.obj.__bases__):
            if x is object:
                continue
            o = get_origin(x)
            if o:
                bases.append((o.__module__, o.__qualname__, str(x)))
            elif x.__module__ == self.modulename:
                bases.append((x.__module__, x.__qualname__, x.__qualname__))
            else:
                bases.append(
                    (x.__module__, x.__qualname__, f"{x.__module__}.{x.__qualname__}")
                )
        return bases

    @cached_property
    def decorators(self) -> list[str]:
        """A list of all decorators the class is decorated with."""
        decorators = []
        for t in doc_ast.parse(self.obj).decorator_list:
            decorators.append(f"@{doc_ast.unparse(t)}")
        return decorators

    @cached_property
    def class_variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all documented class variables in the class.

        Class variables are variables that are explicitly annotated with `typing.ClassVar`.
        All other variables are treated as instance variables.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Variable) and x.is_classvar
        ]

    @cached_property
    def instance_variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all instance variables in the class.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Variable) and not x.is_classvar
        ]

    @cached_property
    def classmethods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented `@classmethod`s.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function) and x.is_classmethod
        ]

    @cached_property
    def staticmethods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented `@staticmethod`s.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function) and x.is_staticmethod
        ]

    @cached_property
    def methods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented methods in the class that are neither static- nor classmethods.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function)
            and not x.is_staticmethod
            and not x.is_classmethod
        ]


WrappedFunction = Union[types.FunctionType, staticmethod, classmethod]


class Function(Doc[types.FunctionType]):
    """
    Representation of a function's documentation.

    This class covers all "flavors" of functions, for example it also
    supports `@classmethod`s or `@staticmethod`s.
    """

    wrapped: Union[types.FunctionType, staticmethod, classmethod]
    """The original wrapped function (e.g., `staticmethod(func)`)"""

    obj: types.FunctionType
    """The unwrapped "real" function."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        func: WrappedFunction,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
    ):
        """Initialize a function's documentation object."""
        unwrapped: types.FunctionType
        if isinstance(func, (classmethod, staticmethod)):
            # noinspection PyTypeChecker
            unwrapped = func.__func__  # type: ignore
        else:
            unwrapped = func
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, unwrapped, taken_from)
        self.wrapped = func

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        if self.is_classmethod:
            t = "class"
        elif self.is_staticmethod:
            t = "static"
        elif self.qualname != _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__name__", None):
            t = "method"
        else:
            t = "function"
        return f"<{_decorators(self)}{t} {self.funcdef} {self.name}{self.signature}: ...{_docstr(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def docstring(self) -> str:
        doc = Doc.docstring.__get__(self)
        if not doc:
            # inspect.getdoc fails for inherited @classmethods and unbound @property descriptors.
            # We now do an ugly dance to obtain the bound object instead,
            # that somewhat resembles what inspect._findclass is doing.
            cls = sys.modules.get(_safe_getattr(self.obj, "__module__", None), None)
            for name in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__qualname__", "").split(".")[:-1]:
                cls = _safe_getattr(cls, name, None)
            doc = inspect.getdoc(_safe_getattr(cls, self.name, None)) or ""
            doc = doc.strip()

        if doc == object.__init__.__doc__:
            # inspect.getdoc(Foo.__init__) returns the docstring, for object.__init__ if left undefined...
            return ""
        else:
            return doc

    @cached_property
    def is_classmethod(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if this function is a `@classmethod`, `False` otherwise.
        """
        return isinstance(self.wrapped, classmethod)

    @cached_property
    def is_staticmethod(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if this function is a `@staticmethod`, `False` otherwise.
        """
        return isinstance(self.wrapped, staticmethod)

    @cached_property
    def decorators(self) -> list[str]:
        """A list of all decorators the function is decorated with."""
        decorators = []
        # noinspection PyTypeChecker
        obj: types.FunctionType = self.obj  # type: ignore
        for t in doc_ast.parse(obj).decorator_list:
            decorators.append(f"@{doc_ast.unparse(t)}")
        return decorators

    @cached_property
    def funcdef(self) -> str:
        """
        The string of keywords used to define the function, i.e. `"def"` or `"async def"`.
        """
        if inspect.iscoroutinefunction(self.obj) or inspect.isasyncgenfunction(
            self.obj
        ):
            return "async def"
        else:
            return "def"

    @cached_property
    def signature(self) -> inspect.Signature:
        """
        The function's signature.

        This usually returns an instance of `_PrettySignature`, a subclass of `inspect.Signature`
        that contains pdoc-specific optimizations. For example, long argument lists are split over multiple lines
        in repr(). Additionally, all types are already resolved.

        If the signature cannot be determined, a placeholder Signature object is returned.
        """
        if self.obj is object.__init__:
            # there is a weird edge case were inspect.signature returns a confusing (self, /, *args, **kwargs)
            # signature for the default __init__ method.
            return inspect.Signature()
        try:
            sig = _PrettySignature.from_callable(self.obj)
        except Exception:
            return inspect.Signature(
                [inspect.Parameter("unknown", inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD)]
            )
        mod = inspect.getmodule(self.obj)
        globalns = _safe_getattr(mod, "__dict__", {})

        if self.name == "__init__":
            sig = sig.replace(return_annotation=empty)
        else:
            sig = sig.replace(
                return_annotation=safe_eval_type(
                    sig.return_annotation, globalns, self.fullname
                )
            )
        for p in sig.parameters.values():
            # noinspection PyTypeHints
            p._annotation = safe_eval_type(p.annotation, globalns, self.fullname)  # type: ignore
        return sig

    @cached_property
    def signature_without_self(self) -> inspect.Signature:
        """Like `signature`, but without the first argument.

        This is useful to display constructors.
        """
        return self.signature.replace(
            parameters=list(self.signature.parameters.values())[1:]
        )


class Variable(Doc[None]):
    """
    Representation of a variable's documentation. This includes module, class and instance variables.
    """

    default_value: Union[
        Any, empty
    ]  # technically Any includes empty, but this conveys intent.
    """
    The variable's default value.
    
    In some cases, no default value is known. This may either be because a variable is only defined in the constructor,
    or it is only declared with a type annotation without assignment (`foo: int`).
    To distinguish this case from a default value of `None`, `pdoc.doc_types.empty` is used as a placeholder.
    """

    annotation: Union[type, empty]
    """
    The variable's type annotation.
    
    If there is no type annotation, `pdoc.doc_types.empty` is used as a placeholder.
    """

    # noinspection PyPropertyAccess
    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        *,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
        docstring: str,
        annotation: Union[type, empty] = empty,
        default_value: Union[Any, empty] = empty,
    ):
        """
        Construct a variable doc object.

        While classes and functions can introspect themselves to see their docstring,
        variables can't do that as we don't have a "variable object" we could query.
        As such, docstring, declaration location, type annotation, and the default value
        must be passed manually in the constructor.
        """
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, None, taken_from)
        self.docstring = inspect.cleandoc(docstring)
        self.annotation = annotation
        self.default_value = default_value

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f'<var {self.qualname.rsplit(".")[-1]}{self.annotation_str}{self.default_value_str}{_docstr(self)}>'

    @cached_property
    def is_classvar(self) -> bool:
        """`True` if the variable is a class variable, `False` otherwise."""
        if get_origin(self.annotation) is ClassVar:
            return True
        else:
            return False

    @cached_property
    def default_value_str(self) -> str:
        """The variable's default value as a pretty-printed str."""
        if self.default_value is empty:
            return ""
        elif isinstance(self.default_value, _tuplegetter):
            return ""
        else:
            try:
                return re.sub(
                    r" at 0x[0-9a-fA-F]+(?=>$)",
                    "",
                    f" = {repr(self.default_value)}",
                )
            except Exception:
                return " = <unable to get value representation>"

    @cached_property
    def annotation_str(self) -> str:
        """The variable's type annotation as a pretty-printed str."""
        if self.annotation is not empty:
            return f": {formatannotation(self.annotation)}"
        else:
            return ""


class _PrettySignature(inspect.Signature):
    """
    A subclass of `inspect.Signature` that pads __str__ over several lines
    for complex signatures.
    """

    def __str__(self):
        # redeclared here to keep code snipped below as-is.
        _POSITIONAL_ONLY = inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_ONLY
        _VAR_POSITIONAL = inspect.Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL
        _KEYWORD_ONLY = inspect.Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY
        _empty = empty

        # https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/799f8489d418b7f9207d333eac38214931bd7dcc/Lib/inspect.py#L3083-L3123
        # Change: added re.sub() to formatted = ....
        # ✂ start ✂
        result = []
        render_pos_only_separator = False
        render_kw_only_separator = True
        for param in self.parameters.values():
            formatted = re.sub(r" at 0x[0-9a-fA-F]+(?=>$)", "", str(param))

            kind = param.kind

            if kind == _POSITIONAL_ONLY:
                render_pos_only_separator = True
            elif render_pos_only_separator:
                # It's not a positional-only parameter, and the flag
                # is set to 'True' (there were pos-only params before.)
                result.append("/")
                render_pos_only_separator = False

            if kind == _VAR_POSITIONAL:
                # OK, we have an '*args'-like parameter, so we won't need
                # a '*' to separate keyword-only arguments
                render_kw_only_separator = False
            elif kind == _KEYWORD_ONLY and render_kw_only_separator:
                # We have a keyword-only parameter to render and we haven't
                # rendered an '*args'-like parameter before, so add a '*'
                # separator to the parameters list ("foo(arg1, *, arg2)" case)
                result.append("*")
                # This condition should be only triggered once, so
                # reset the flag
                render_kw_only_separator = False

            result.append(formatted)

        if render_pos_only_separator:
            # There were only positional-only parameters, hence the
            # flag was not reset to 'False'
            result.append("/")

        rendered = "({})".format(", ".join(result))

        if self.return_annotation is not _empty:
            anno = formatannotation(self.return_annotation)
            rendered += " -> {}".format(anno)
        # ✂ end ✂

        if len(rendered) > 70:
            rendered = "(\n    " + ",\n    ".join(result) + "\n)"
            if self.return_annotation is not _empty:
                rendered += f" -> {formatannotation(self.return_annotation)}"

        return rendered


def _cut(x: str) -> str:
    """helper function for Doc.__repr__()"""
    if len(x) < 20:
        return x
    else:
        return x[:20] + "…"


def _docstr(doc: "Doc") -> str:
    """helper function for Doc.__repr__()"""
    docstr = []
    if doc.is_inherited:
        docstr.append(f"inherited from {'.'.join(doc.taken_from).rstrip('.')}")
    if doc.docstring:
        docstr.append(_cut(doc.docstring))
    if docstr:
        return f"  # {', '.join(docstr)}"
    else:
        return ""


def _decorators(doc: Union["Class", "Function"]) -> str:
    """helper function for Doc.__repr__()"""
    if doc.decorators:
        return " ".join(doc.decorators) + " "
    else:
        return ""


def _children(doc: Namespace) -> str:
    children = "\n".join(
        repr(x)
        for x in doc.members.values()
        if not x.name.startswith("_") or x.name == "__init__"
    )
    if children:
        children = f"\n{textwrap.indent(children, '    ')}"
    return children


def _safe_getattr(obj, attr, default):
    """Like `getattr()`, but never raises."""
    try:
        return getattr(obj, attr, default)
    except Exception as e:
        warnings.warn(
            f"getattr({obj!r}, {attr!r}, {default!r}) raised an exception: {e}",
            RuntimeWarning,
        )
        return default
#   class Doc(typing.Generic[~T]):
View Source
class Doc(Generic[T]):
    """
    A base class for all documentation objects.
    """

    modulename: str
    """
    The module that this object is in, for example `pdoc.doc`.
    """

    qualname: str
    """
    The qualified identifier name for this object. For example, if we have the following code:
    
    ```python
    class Foo:
        def bar(self):
            pass
    ```
    
    The qualname of `Foo`'s `bar` method is `Foo.bar`. The qualname of the `Foo` class is just `Foo`.
    
    See <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3155/> for details.
    """

    obj: T
    """
    The underlying Python object.
    """

    taken_from: tuple[str, str]
    """
    `(modulename, qualname)` of this doc object's original location.
    In the context of a module, this points to the location it was imported from,
    in the context classes, this points to the class an attribute is inherited from.
    """

    def __init__(
        self, modulename: str, qualname: str, obj: T, taken_from: tuple[str, str]
    ):
        """
        Initializes a documentation object, where
        `modulename` is the name this module is defined in,
        `qualname` contains a dotted path leading to the object from the module top-level, and
        `obj` is the object to document.
        """
        self.modulename = modulename
        self.qualname = qualname
        self.obj = obj
        self.taken_from = taken_from

    @cached_property
    def fullname(self) -> str:
        """The full qualified name of this doc object, for example `pdoc.doc.Doc`."""
        # qualname is empty for modules
        return f"{self.modulename}.{self.qualname}".rstrip(".")

    @cached_property
    def name(self) -> str:
        """The name of this object. For top-level functions and classes, this is equal to the qualname attribute."""
        return self.fullname.split(".")[-1]

    @cached_property
    def docstring(self) -> str:
        """
        The docstring for this object. It has already been cleaned by `inspect.cleandoc`.

        If no docstring can be found, an empty string is returned.
        """
        doc = inspect.getdoc(self.obj) or ""
        return doc.strip()

    @cached_property
    def source(self) -> str:
        """
        The source code of the Python object as a `str`.

        If the source cannot be obtained (for example, because we are dealing with a native C object),
        an empty string is returned.
        """
        return doc_ast.get_source(self.obj)

    @cached_property
    def is_inherited(self) -> bool:
        """
        If True, the doc object is inherited from another location.
        This most commonly refers to methods inherited by a subclass,
        but can also apply to variables that are assigned a class defined
        in a different module.
        """
        return (self.modulename, self.qualname) != self.taken_from

    @classmethod
    @property
    def type(cls) -> str:
        """
        The type of the doc object, either `"module"`, `"class"`, or `"function"`.
        """
        return cls.__name__.lower()

    if sys.version_info < (3, 9):  # pragma: no cover
        # no @classmethod @property in 3.8
        @property
        def type(self) -> str:  # noqa
            return self.__class__.__name__.lower()

    def __lt__(self, other):
        assert isinstance(other, Doc)
        return self.fullname.replace("__init__", "").__lt__(
            other.fullname.replace("__init__", "")
        )

A base class for all documentation objects.

#   Doc(modulename: str, qualname: str, obj: ~T, taken_from: tuple)
View Source
    def __init__(
        self, modulename: str, qualname: str, obj: T, taken_from: tuple[str, str]
    ):
        """
        Initializes a documentation object, where
        `modulename` is the name this module is defined in,
        `qualname` contains a dotted path leading to the object from the module top-level, and
        `obj` is the object to document.
        """
        self.modulename = modulename
        self.qualname = qualname
        self.obj = obj
        self.taken_from = taken_from

Initializes a documentation object, where modulename is the name this module is defined in, qualname contains a dotted path leading to the object from the module top-level, and obj is the object to document.

#   modulename: str

The module that this object is in, for example pdoc.doc.

#   qualname: str

The qualified identifier name for this object. For example, if we have the following code:

class Foo:
    def bar(self):
        pass

The qualname of Foo's bar method is Foo.bar. The qualname of the Foo class is just Foo.

See https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3155/ for details.

#   obj: ~T

The underlying Python object.

#   taken_from: tuple[str, str]

(modulename, qualname) of this doc object's original location. In the context of a module, this points to the location it was imported from, in the context classes, this points to the class an attribute is inherited from.

#   fullname: str

The full qualified name of this doc object, for example pdoc.doc.Doc.

#   name: str

The name of this object. For top-level functions and classes, this is equal to the qualname attribute.

#   docstring: str

The docstring for this object. It has already been cleaned by inspect.cleandoc.

If no docstring can be found, an empty string is returned.

#   source: str

The source code of the Python object as a str.

If the source cannot be obtained (for example, because we are dealing with a native C object), an empty string is returned.

#   is_inherited: bool

If True, the doc object is inherited from another location. This most commonly refers to methods inherited by a subclass, but can also apply to variables that are assigned a class defined in a different module.

#   type: str

The type of the doc object, either "module", "class", or "function".

#   class Namespace(pdoc.doc.Doc[~T]):
View Source
class Namespace(Doc[T], metaclass=ABCMeta):
    """
    A documentation object that can have children. In other words, either a module or a class.
    """

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        """
        A mapping from *all* public and private member names to their Python objects.
        """

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        """A mapping from some member variable names to their docstrings."""

    @abstractmethod
    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        """The location this member was taken from. If unknown, (modulename, qualname) is returned."""

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        """A mapping from some member variable names to their type annotations."""

    @cached_property
    @abstractmethod
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        """A list of all own (i.e. non-inherited) members"""

    @cached_property
    def members(self) -> dict[str, Doc]:
        """A mapping from all members to their documentation objects."""
        members: dict[str, Doc] = {}
        for name, obj in self._member_objects.items():
            qualname = f"{self.qualname}.{name}".lstrip(".")
            taken_from = self._taken_from(name, obj)
            doc: Doc[Any]

            is_classmethod = isinstance(obj, classmethod)
            is_property = (
                isinstance(obj, (property, cached_property))
                or
                # Python 3.9: @classmethod @property is now allowed.
                is_classmethod
                and isinstance(obj.__func__, (property, cached_property))
            )
            if is_property:
                func = obj
                if is_classmethod:
                    func = obj.__func__
                if isinstance(func, property):
                    func = func.fget
                else:
                    assert isinstance(func, cached_property)
                    func = func.func

                doc_f = Function(self.modulename, qualname, func, taken_from)
                doc = Variable(
                    self.modulename,
                    qualname,
                    docstring=doc_f.docstring,
                    annotation=doc_f.signature.return_annotation,
                    default_value=empty,
                    taken_from=taken_from,
                )
            elif inspect.isroutine(obj):
                doc = Function(self.modulename, qualname, obj, taken_from)
            elif inspect.isclass(obj) and obj is not empty:
                doc = Class(self.modulename, qualname, obj, taken_from)
            elif inspect.ismodule(obj):
                doc = Module(obj)
                doc.modulename = self.modulename
                doc.qualname = qualname
            else:
                docstring = self._var_docstrings.get(name, "")
                if not docstring and inspect.isdatadescriptor(obj):
                    docstring = getattr(obj, "__doc__", None) or ""
                doc = Variable(
                    self.modulename,
                    qualname,
                    docstring=docstring,
                    annotation=self._var_annotations.get(name, empty),
                    default_value=obj,
                    taken_from=taken_from,
                )
            members[doc.name] = doc
        return members

    @cached_property
    def _members_by_origin(self) -> dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]]:
        """A mapping from (modulename, qualname) locations to the attributes taken from that path"""
        locations: dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]] = {}
        for member in self.members.values():
            mod, qualname = member.taken_from
            parent_qualname = ".".join(qualname.rsplit(".", maxsplit=1)[:-1])
            locations.setdefault((mod, parent_qualname), [])
            locations[(mod, parent_qualname)].append(member)
        return locations

    @cached_property
    def inherited_members(self) -> dict[tuple[str, str], list[Doc]]:
        """A mapping from (modulename, qualname) locations to the attributes inherited from that path"""
        return {
            k: v
            for k, v in self._members_by_origin.items()
            if k not in (self.taken_from, (self.modulename, self.qualname))
        }

    @cached_property
    def flattened_own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        """
        A list of all documented members and their child classes, recursively.
        """
        flattened = []
        for x in self.own_members:
            flattened.append(x)
            if isinstance(x, Class):
                flattened.extend(
                    [cls for cls in x.flattened_own_members if isinstance(cls, Class)]
                )
        return flattened

    @cache
    def get(self, identifier: str) -> Optional[Doc]:
        """Returns the documentation object for a particular identifier, or `None` if the identifier cannot be found."""
        head, _, tail = identifier.partition(".")
        if tail:
            h = self.members.get(head, None)
            if isinstance(h, Class):
                return h.get(tail)
            return None
        else:
            return self.members.get(identifier, None)

A documentation object that can have children. In other words, either a module or a class.

#   own_members: list[pdoc.doc.Doc]

A list of all own (i.e. non-inherited) members

#   members: dict[str, pdoc.doc.Doc]

A mapping from all members to their documentation objects.

#   inherited_members: dict[tuple[str, str], list[pdoc.doc.Doc]]

A mapping from (modulename, qualname) locations to the attributes inherited from that path

#   flattened_own_members: list[pdoc.doc.Doc]

A list of all documented members and their child classes, recursively.

#  
@cache
def get(self, identifier: str) -> Optional[pdoc.doc.Doc]:
View Source
    @cache
    def get(self, identifier: str) -> Optional[Doc]:
        """Returns the documentation object for a particular identifier, or `None` if the identifier cannot be found."""
        head, _, tail = identifier.partition(".")
        if tail:
            h = self.members.get(head, None)
            if isinstance(h, Class):
                return h.get(tail)
            return None
        else:
            return self.members.get(identifier, None)

Returns the documentation object for a particular identifier, or None if the identifier cannot be found.

View Source
class Module(Namespace[types.ModuleType]):
    """
    Representation of a module's documentation.
    """

    def __init__(
        self,
        module: types.ModuleType,
    ):
        """
        Creates a documentation object given the actual
        Python module object.
        """
        super().__init__(module.__name__, "", module, (module.__name__, ""))

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f"<module {self.fullname}{_docstr(self)}{_children(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def is_package(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if the module is a package, `False` otherwise.

        Packages are special kind of module that may have submodules.
        Typically, this means that this file is in a directory named like the
        module with the name `__init__.py`.
        """
        return _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__path__", None) is not None

    @cached_property
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        return doc_ast.walk_tree(self.obj).docstrings

    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        if obj is empty:
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")
        if isinstance(obj, types.ModuleType):
            return obj.__name__, ""

        mod = _safe_getattr(obj, "__module__", None)
        qual = _safe_getattr(obj, "__qualname__", None)
        if mod and qual and "<locals>" not in qual:
            return mod, qual
        elif mod and mod != self.modulename:
            # This might be wrong, but it's the best guess we have.
            return mod, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")
        else:
            # We could conceivably also walk the AST here for imports,
            # which would turn up the origin of variables.
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}".lstrip(".")

    @cached_property
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        annotations = doc_ast.walk_tree(self.obj).annotations.copy()
        for k, v in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__annotations__", {}).items():
            annotations[k] = v

        return resolve_annotations(annotations, self.obj, self.fullname)

    @cached_property
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        return list(self.members.values())

    @cached_property
    def submodules(self) -> list["Module"]:
        """A list of all (direct) submodules."""
        if not self.is_package:
            return []

        if _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__all__", False):
            # If __all__ is set, only show submodules specified there.
            return [
                mod
                for mod in self.members.values()
                if isinstance(mod, Module)
                and mod.modulename.startswith(self.modulename)
            ]

        else:
            submodules = []
            for mod in pkgutil.iter_modules(self.obj.__path__, f"{self.fullname}."):  # type: ignore
                if mod.name.split(".")[-1].startswith("_"):
                    continue
                try:
                    module = extract.load_module(mod.name)
                except RuntimeError:
                    warnings.warn(
                        f"Couldn't import {mod.name}:\n{traceback.format_exc()}",
                        RuntimeWarning,
                    )
                    continue
                submodules.append(Module(module))
            return submodules

    @cached_property
    def _documented_members(self) -> set[str]:
        return self._var_docstrings.keys() | self._var_annotations.keys()

    @cached_property
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        members = {}

        all = _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__all__", False)
        if all:
            for name in all:
                if name in self.obj.__dict__:
                    val = self.obj.__dict__[name]
                elif name in self._var_annotations:
                    val = empty
                else:
                    # this may be an unimported submodule, try importing.
                    # (https://docs.python.org/3/tutorial/modules.html#importing-from-a-package)
                    try:
                        val = extract.load_module(f"{self.modulename}.{name}")
                    except RuntimeError as e:
                        warnings.warn(
                            f"Found {name!r} in {self.modulename}.__all__, but it does not resolve: {e}",
                            RuntimeWarning,
                        )
                        val = empty
                members[name] = val

        else:
            for name, obj in self.obj.__dict__.items():
                # We already exclude everything here that is imported, only a TypeVar,
                # or a variable without annotation and docstring.
                # If one needs to document one of these things, __all__ is the correct way.
                if isinstance(obj, TypeVar):
                    continue
                obj_module = inspect.getmodule(obj)
                declared_in_this_module = self.obj.__name__ == _safe_getattr(
                    obj_module, "__name__", None
                )
                if declared_in_this_module or name in self._documented_members:
                    members[name] = obj
            for name in self._var_annotations:
                members.setdefault(name, empty)

            members, notfound = doc_ast.sort_by_source(self.obj, {}, members)
            members.update(notfound)

        return members

    @cached_property
    def variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level variables.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Variable)]

    @cached_property
    def classes(self) -> list["Class"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level classes.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Class)]

    @cached_property
    def functions(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented module level functions.
        """
        return [x for x in self.members.values() if isinstance(x, Function)]

Representation of a module's documentation.

#   Module(module: module)
View Source
    def __init__(
        self,
        module: types.ModuleType,
    ):
        """
        Creates a documentation object given the actual
        Python module object.
        """
        super().__init__(module.__name__, "", module, (module.__name__, ""))

Creates a documentation object given the actual Python module object.

#   is_package: bool

True if the module is a package, False otherwise.

Packages are special kind of module that may have submodules. Typically, this means that this file is in a directory named like the module with the name __init__.py.

#   own_members: list[pdoc.doc.Doc]
#   submodules: list['Module']

A list of all (direct) submodules.

#   variables: list['Variable']

A list of all documented module level variables.

#   classes: list['Class']

A list of all documented module level classes.

#   functions: list['Function']

A list of all documented module level functions.

View Source
class Class(Namespace[type]):
    """
    Representation of a class's documentation.
    """

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f"<{_decorators(self)}class {self.modulename}.{self.qualname}{_docstr(self)}{_children(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def _var_docstrings(self) -> dict[str, str]:
        docstrings: dict[str, str] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            for name, docstr in doc_ast.walk_tree(cls).docstrings.items():
                docstrings.setdefault(name, docstr)
        return docstrings

    @cached_property
    def _declarations(self) -> dict[str, tuple[str, str]]:
        decls: dict[str, tuple[str, str]] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            treeinfo = doc_ast.walk_tree(cls)
            for name in treeinfo.docstrings.keys() | treeinfo.annotations.keys():
                decls.setdefault(name, (cls.__module__, f"{cls.__qualname__}.{name}"))
            for name in cls.__dict__:
                decls.setdefault(name, (cls.__module__, f"{cls.__qualname__}.{name}"))
        if decls.get("__init__", None) == ("builtins", "object.__init__"):
            decls["__init__"] = (
                self.obj.__module__,
                f"{self.obj.__qualname__}.__init__",
            )
        return decls

    def _taken_from(self, member_name: str, obj: Any) -> tuple[str, str]:
        try:
            return self._declarations[member_name]
        except KeyError:  # pragma: no cover
            warnings.warn(
                f"Cannot determine where {self.fullname}.{member_name} is taken from, assuming current file."
            )
            return self.modulename, f"{self.qualname}.{member_name}"

    @cached_property
    def _var_annotations(self) -> dict[str, type]:
        annotations: dict[str, type] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            cls_annotations = doc_ast.walk_tree(cls).annotations.copy()
            dynamic_annotations = _safe_getattr(cls, "__annotations__", None)
            if isinstance(dynamic_annotations, dict):
                for k, v in dynamic_annotations.items():
                    cls_annotations[k] = v
            cls_fullname = (
                _safe_getattr(cls, "__module__", "") + "." + cls.__qualname__
            ).lstrip(".")
            cls_annotations = resolve_annotations(
                cls_annotations, inspect.getmodule(cls), cls_fullname
            )

            for k, v in cls_annotations.items():
                annotations.setdefault(k, v)
        return annotations

    @cached_property
    def own_members(self) -> list[Doc]:
        members = self._members_by_origin.get((self.modulename, self.qualname), [])
        if self.taken_from != (self.modulename, self.qualname):
            # .taken_from may be != (self.modulename, self.qualname), for example when
            # a module re-exports a class from a private submodule.
            members += self._members_by_origin.get(self.taken_from, [])
        return members

    @cached_property
    def _member_objects(self) -> dict[str, Any]:
        unsorted: dict[str, Any] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            for name, obj in cls.__dict__.items():
                unsorted.setdefault(name, obj)
        for name in self._var_annotations:
            unsorted.setdefault(name, empty)
        for name in self._var_docstrings:
            unsorted.setdefault(name, empty)

        # Do a dance similar to
        # https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/9feae41c4f04ca27fd2c865807a5caeb50bf4fc4/Lib/inspect.py#L2359-L2376
        call = _safe_getattr(type(self.obj), "__call__", object.__call__)
        if not isinstance(call, NonUserDefinedCallables):
            # Does the metaclass define a custom __call__ method?
            unsorted["__init__"] = call
            if issubclass(self.obj, enum.Enum):
                # Special case: do not show a constructor for enums. They are typically not constructed by users.
                # The alternative would be showing __new__, as __call__ is too verbose.
                del unsorted["__init__"]
        else:
            # Does our class define a custom __new__ method?
            new = _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__new__", object.__new__)
            if not isinstance(new, NonUserDefinedCallables):
                # we only want to pick up __new__ if it has a non-default docstring.
                prefer_init_over_new = new.__doc__ in (None, object.__new__.__doc__)
                if not prefer_init_over_new:
                    unsorted["__init__"] = new

        sorted: dict[str, Any] = {}
        for cls in self.obj.__mro__:
            sorted, unsorted = doc_ast.sort_by_source(cls, sorted, unsorted)
        sorted.update(unsorted)
        return sorted

    @cached_property
    def bases(self) -> list[tuple[str, str, str]]:
        """
        A list of all base classes, i.e. all immediate parent classes.

        Each parent class is represented as a `(modulename, qualname, display_text)` tuple.
        """
        bases = []
        # noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
        for x in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__orig_bases__", self.obj.__bases__):
            if x is object:
                continue
            o = get_origin(x)
            if o:
                bases.append((o.__module__, o.__qualname__, str(x)))
            elif x.__module__ == self.modulename:
                bases.append((x.__module__, x.__qualname__, x.__qualname__))
            else:
                bases.append(
                    (x.__module__, x.__qualname__, f"{x.__module__}.{x.__qualname__}")
                )
        return bases

    @cached_property
    def decorators(self) -> list[str]:
        """A list of all decorators the class is decorated with."""
        decorators = []
        for t in doc_ast.parse(self.obj).decorator_list:
            decorators.append(f"@{doc_ast.unparse(t)}")
        return decorators

    @cached_property
    def class_variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all documented class variables in the class.

        Class variables are variables that are explicitly annotated with `typing.ClassVar`.
        All other variables are treated as instance variables.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Variable) and x.is_classvar
        ]

    @cached_property
    def instance_variables(self) -> list["Variable"]:
        """
        A list of all instance variables in the class.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Variable) and not x.is_classvar
        ]

    @cached_property
    def classmethods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented `@classmethod`s.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function) and x.is_classmethod
        ]

    @cached_property
    def staticmethods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented `@staticmethod`s.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function) and x.is_staticmethod
        ]

    @cached_property
    def methods(self) -> list["Function"]:
        """
        A list of all documented methods in the class that are neither static- nor classmethods.
        """
        return [
            x
            for x in self.members.values()
            if isinstance(x, Function)
            and not x.is_staticmethod
            and not x.is_classmethod
        ]

Representation of a class's documentation.

#   own_members: list[pdoc.doc.Doc]
#   bases: list[tuple[str, str, str]]

A list of all base classes, i.e. all immediate parent classes.

Each parent class is represented as a (modulename, qualname, display_text) tuple.

#   decorators: list[str]

A list of all decorators the class is decorated with.

#   class_variables: list['Variable']

A list of all documented class variables in the class.

Class variables are variables that are explicitly annotated with typing.ClassVar. All other variables are treated as instance variables.

#   instance_variables: list['Variable']

A list of all instance variables in the class.

#   classmethods: list['Function']

A list of all documented @classmethods.

#   staticmethods: list['Function']

A list of all documented @staticmethods.

#   methods: list['Function']

A list of all documented methods in the class that are neither static- nor classmethods.

#   class Function(pdoc.doc.Doc[function]):
View Source
class Function(Doc[types.FunctionType]):
    """
    Representation of a function's documentation.

    This class covers all "flavors" of functions, for example it also
    supports `@classmethod`s or `@staticmethod`s.
    """

    wrapped: Union[types.FunctionType, staticmethod, classmethod]
    """The original wrapped function (e.g., `staticmethod(func)`)"""

    obj: types.FunctionType
    """The unwrapped "real" function."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        func: WrappedFunction,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
    ):
        """Initialize a function's documentation object."""
        unwrapped: types.FunctionType
        if isinstance(func, (classmethod, staticmethod)):
            # noinspection PyTypeChecker
            unwrapped = func.__func__  # type: ignore
        else:
            unwrapped = func
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, unwrapped, taken_from)
        self.wrapped = func

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        if self.is_classmethod:
            t = "class"
        elif self.is_staticmethod:
            t = "static"
        elif self.qualname != _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__name__", None):
            t = "method"
        else:
            t = "function"
        return f"<{_decorators(self)}{t} {self.funcdef} {self.name}{self.signature}: ...{_docstr(self)}>"

    @cached_property
    def docstring(self) -> str:
        doc = Doc.docstring.__get__(self)
        if not doc:
            # inspect.getdoc fails for inherited @classmethods and unbound @property descriptors.
            # We now do an ugly dance to obtain the bound object instead,
            # that somewhat resembles what inspect._findclass is doing.
            cls = sys.modules.get(_safe_getattr(self.obj, "__module__", None), None)
            for name in _safe_getattr(self.obj, "__qualname__", "").split(".")[:-1]:
                cls = _safe_getattr(cls, name, None)
            doc = inspect.getdoc(_safe_getattr(cls, self.name, None)) or ""
            doc = doc.strip()

        if doc == object.__init__.__doc__:
            # inspect.getdoc(Foo.__init__) returns the docstring, for object.__init__ if left undefined...
            return ""
        else:
            return doc

    @cached_property
    def is_classmethod(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if this function is a `@classmethod`, `False` otherwise.
        """
        return isinstance(self.wrapped, classmethod)

    @cached_property
    def is_staticmethod(self) -> bool:
        """
        `True` if this function is a `@staticmethod`, `False` otherwise.
        """
        return isinstance(self.wrapped, staticmethod)

    @cached_property
    def decorators(self) -> list[str]:
        """A list of all decorators the function is decorated with."""
        decorators = []
        # noinspection PyTypeChecker
        obj: types.FunctionType = self.obj  # type: ignore
        for t in doc_ast.parse(obj).decorator_list:
            decorators.append(f"@{doc_ast.unparse(t)}")
        return decorators

    @cached_property
    def funcdef(self) -> str:
        """
        The string of keywords used to define the function, i.e. `"def"` or `"async def"`.
        """
        if inspect.iscoroutinefunction(self.obj) or inspect.isasyncgenfunction(
            self.obj
        ):
            return "async def"
        else:
            return "def"

    @cached_property
    def signature(self) -> inspect.Signature:
        """
        The function's signature.

        This usually returns an instance of `_PrettySignature`, a subclass of `inspect.Signature`
        that contains pdoc-specific optimizations. For example, long argument lists are split over multiple lines
        in repr(). Additionally, all types are already resolved.

        If the signature cannot be determined, a placeholder Signature object is returned.
        """
        if self.obj is object.__init__:
            # there is a weird edge case were inspect.signature returns a confusing (self, /, *args, **kwargs)
            # signature for the default __init__ method.
            return inspect.Signature()
        try:
            sig = _PrettySignature.from_callable(self.obj)
        except Exception:
            return inspect.Signature(
                [inspect.Parameter("unknown", inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD)]
            )
        mod = inspect.getmodule(self.obj)
        globalns = _safe_getattr(mod, "__dict__", {})

        if self.name == "__init__":
            sig = sig.replace(return_annotation=empty)
        else:
            sig = sig.replace(
                return_annotation=safe_eval_type(
                    sig.return_annotation, globalns, self.fullname
                )
            )
        for p in sig.parameters.values():
            # noinspection PyTypeHints
            p._annotation = safe_eval_type(p.annotation, globalns, self.fullname)  # type: ignore
        return sig

    @cached_property
    def signature_without_self(self) -> inspect.Signature:
        """Like `signature`, but without the first argument.

        This is useful to display constructors.
        """
        return self.signature.replace(
            parameters=list(self.signature.parameters.values())[1:]
        )

Representation of a function's documentation.

This class covers all "flavors" of functions, for example it also supports @classmethods or @staticmethods.

#   Function( modulename: str, qualname: str, func: Union[function, staticmethod, classmethod], taken_from: tuple )
View Source
    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        func: WrappedFunction,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
    ):
        """Initialize a function's documentation object."""
        unwrapped: types.FunctionType
        if isinstance(func, (classmethod, staticmethod)):
            # noinspection PyTypeChecker
            unwrapped = func.__func__  # type: ignore
        else:
            unwrapped = func
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, unwrapped, taken_from)
        self.wrapped = func

Initialize a function's documentation object.

#   wrapped: Union[function, staticmethod, classmethod]

The original wrapped function (e.g., staticmethod(func))

#   obj: function

The unwrapped "real" function.

#   docstring: str
#   is_classmethod: bool

True if this function is a @classmethod, False otherwise.

#   is_staticmethod: bool

True if this function is a @staticmethod, False otherwise.

#   decorators: list[str]

A list of all decorators the function is decorated with.

#   funcdef: str

The string of keywords used to define the function, i.e. "def" or "async def".

#   signature: inspect.Signature

The function's signature.

This usually returns an instance of _PrettySignature, a subclass of inspect.Signature that contains pdoc-specific optimizations. For example, long argument lists are split over multiple lines in repr(). Additionally, all types are already resolved.

If the signature cannot be determined, a placeholder Signature object is returned.

#   signature_without_self: inspect.Signature

Like signature, but without the first argument.

This is useful to display constructors.

#   class Variable(pdoc.doc.Doc[NoneType]):
View Source
class Variable(Doc[None]):
    """
    Representation of a variable's documentation. This includes module, class and instance variables.
    """

    default_value: Union[
        Any, empty
    ]  # technically Any includes empty, but this conveys intent.
    """
    The variable's default value.
    
    In some cases, no default value is known. This may either be because a variable is only defined in the constructor,
    or it is only declared with a type annotation without assignment (`foo: int`).
    To distinguish this case from a default value of `None`, `pdoc.doc_types.empty` is used as a placeholder.
    """

    annotation: Union[type, empty]
    """
    The variable's type annotation.
    
    If there is no type annotation, `pdoc.doc_types.empty` is used as a placeholder.
    """

    # noinspection PyPropertyAccess
    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        *,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
        docstring: str,
        annotation: Union[type, empty] = empty,
        default_value: Union[Any, empty] = empty,
    ):
        """
        Construct a variable doc object.

        While classes and functions can introspect themselves to see their docstring,
        variables can't do that as we don't have a "variable object" we could query.
        As such, docstring, declaration location, type annotation, and the default value
        must be passed manually in the constructor.
        """
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, None, taken_from)
        self.docstring = inspect.cleandoc(docstring)
        self.annotation = annotation
        self.default_value = default_value

    @cache
    @_include_fullname_in_traceback
    def __repr__(self):
        return f'<var {self.qualname.rsplit(".")[-1]}{self.annotation_str}{self.default_value_str}{_docstr(self)}>'

    @cached_property
    def is_classvar(self) -> bool:
        """`True` if the variable is a class variable, `False` otherwise."""
        if get_origin(self.annotation) is ClassVar:
            return True
        else:
            return False

    @cached_property
    def default_value_str(self) -> str:
        """The variable's default value as a pretty-printed str."""
        if self.default_value is empty:
            return ""
        elif isinstance(self.default_value, _tuplegetter):
            return ""
        else:
            try:
                return re.sub(
                    r" at 0x[0-9a-fA-F]+(?=>$)",
                    "",
                    f" = {repr(self.default_value)}",
                )
            except Exception:
                return " = <unable to get value representation>"

    @cached_property
    def annotation_str(self) -> str:
        """The variable's type annotation as a pretty-printed str."""
        if self.annotation is not empty:
            return f": {formatannotation(self.annotation)}"
        else:
            return ""

Representation of a variable's documentation. This includes module, class and instance variables.

#   Variable( modulename: str, qualname: str, *, taken_from: tuple, docstring: str, annotation: Union[type, inspect._empty], default_value: Union[Any, inspect._empty] )
View Source
    def __init__(
        self,
        modulename: str,
        qualname: str,
        *,
        taken_from: tuple[str, str],
        docstring: str,
        annotation: Union[type, empty] = empty,
        default_value: Union[Any, empty] = empty,
    ):
        """
        Construct a variable doc object.

        While classes and functions can introspect themselves to see their docstring,
        variables can't do that as we don't have a "variable object" we could query.
        As such, docstring, declaration location, type annotation, and the default value
        must be passed manually in the constructor.
        """
        super().__init__(modulename, qualname, None, taken_from)
        self.docstring = inspect.cleandoc(docstring)
        self.annotation = annotation
        self.default_value = default_value

Construct a variable doc object.

While classes and functions can introspect themselves to see their docstring, variables can't do that as we don't have a "variable object" we could query. As such, docstring, declaration location, type annotation, and the default value must be passed manually in the constructor.

#   default_value: Union[Any, inspect._empty]

The variable's default value.

In some cases, no default value is known. This may either be because a variable is only defined in the constructor, or it is only declared with a type annotation without assignment (foo: int). To distinguish this case from a default value of None, pdoc.doc_types.empty is used as a placeholder.

#   annotation: Union[type, inspect._empty]

The variable's type annotation.

If there is no type annotation, pdoc.doc_types.empty is used as a placeholder.

#   is_classvar: bool

True if the variable is a class variable, False otherwise.

#   default_value_str: str

The variable's default value as a pretty-printed str.

#   annotation_str: str

The variable's type annotation as a pretty-printed str.